Woven Fabric Patterns are classified as following criteria. Now a days woven fabric is widely used for home furnishing and decoration. Besides garments it is a big part. So it is important part of textile to define and classify woven fabric and its structure and pattern.
Classification of Weave Patterns:
The two major categories based on the types of weaves are Basic or Simple weave and Compound or complex weaves which are further categorised in the following categories:
- Basic/Simple Weaves
- Plain weave
- Twill weave
- Satin weave
- Compound/Complex/Novelty Weaves
- Dobby Weave
- Jacquard Weave
- Double Cloth & Double Weave
- Pile Fabrics
- Surface Figure Weaves
1. Basic / Simple weave :
1.1 Plain weave :
Plain weave, also called taffeta. Filling yarns pass over and under alternate warp yarns. Other plain weaves are broadcloth, muslin, batiste, percale, seersucker, organdy, voile, and tweed.Simplest weave requiring a 2 harness loom, formed by yarns at right angles whereby each warp yarn interlaces with each weft yarn.
Properties : least expensive to produce, reversible unless surface design, wrinkles more, firm & wears well, less absorbent, abrasion resistant, used as background for printing/embroidery
1.2 Twill weave :
Filling yarns pass over two warp yarns and under a third, and repeat the sequence for the width of the fabric. The next filling yarn repeats the sequence but shifts one warp yarn sideways, creating a diagonal pattern. Herringbone, serge, jersey, foulard, gabardine, worsted cheviot, and drill are twill weaves.Each warp or weft yarn floats across two or more weft or warp yarns with a progression of interlacing by one to the right or to the left, forming a distinct diagonal line or wale. Direction of diagonal may be formed from right to left, from left to right or a combination of both. Soil resistant, softer & pliable, good wrinkle recovery, durable & wears well. The direction of the twill on the back of the cloth is opposite to the twill line on the face. 3 harness are required for twill weave.
Right Hand Twill – diagonals run upwards to the right.
Left Hand Twill – diagonals run upwards to the left.
Balanced Twill – same number of warp pass over filling yarns. It is reversible. 2X2, 4X4
Unbalanced Twill – have uneven number of warp or filling yarn. It has a right or wrong.
Broken Twill – combines right or left hand twills
Herringbone Twill – a series of inverted V’s are formed resembling the backbone of the herringbone fish. Most commonly used in suiting fabrics.
Twill Angles – according to the angles of the diagonal line, Regular twill – 45° °
Reclining twill – with smaller angles, Steep twill – with larger angles. E.g.: denim, herringbone, hound’s-tooth.
1.3 Satin weave :
Satin weave. Filler yarns pass over a number of warp yarns, four in this illustration, and under the fifth. Damask, sateen, and crepe satin are satin weaves. Exposed yarns reflect light and give the weave its sheen. Each warp/ filling yarn floats over 4 filling/ warp yarns & interlaces with 5th filling/ warp yarn, with progression of interlacing by 2 to right or left (warp faced/ weft faced). Luster (long floats), firm, durable (yarns packed closely together), pliable, wrinkle resistant, yarn slippage. Satin is warp faced. Sateen is weft faced. 5 harness are required for satin weave.
2. Compound/Complex/Novelty Weaves :
2.1 Crepe Weave :
Crinkled or pebbly surface. Irregular, indistinct pattern utilizing both plain and satin weave using dobby attachment are made. Few crepe weave fabric are available. Other crepe fabrics are created using crepe yarn which are highly twisted (up to 65 tpi). Textured yarns, bicomponent yarns (uneven shrinkage), embossing, stamping crepe like effect are being used. In all these plain weave, synthetic fibers and thermoplastic property is used.
2.2 Leno Weave : It is the form of weaving in which two adjacent warp yarns cross each other between the picks. The warp yarns are paired. With a special leno or doup attachment warp yarns are crossed/ twisted over each other in pairs around each pick, firmly holding the filling yarn in the figure – 8 loops formed. Leno fabrics are open and gauge like. Leno weave is useful in reducing yarn slippage, greater firmness & strength than plain weave. Uses- curtain, gauge, marquisette, grenadine, fruit sacks, rice net, mosquito net, mesh.
Colour & Weave Effect : Pattern produced in a fabric by using a certain weave and a certain arrangement of differently coloured yarns in both warp and filling.
Hound’s tooth – 2 up, 2 down, 45° left hand twill, and group of 4 yarns of one colour are arranged in both warp & filling followed by the other colour.
2.4 Lappet weave :
This is the type of weave in which floating threads are carried on the surface of the fabric and introduced at intervals to form the patterns. The floats are not long and the patterns are usually geometric, i.e. zigzag stripes in white yarn on a coloured plain weave ground.
2.5 Novelty weave :
Any weave which varies or combines the basic weaves, plain, satin and twill.
2.6 Swivel weaving :
A fabric in which figure is achieved by the introduction of additional weft threads into base fabric to produce small clipped woven-in-spot effects. The figuring yarn is fed from a series of shuttles mounted over the top of the weaving surface.
2.7 Tablet weaving : It is a method of making woven plain or patterned narrow fabrics, where warp is controlled by tablets made of thin, stiff material, e.g. cardboard, plastic, bone, etc. Tablets are usually about 5 to 10 cm square, although other shapes, e.g. triangles, hexagons, etc. are also used. Each tablet has a hole at each corner through the warp yarns are threaded. Rotating the tablets controls the rise and fall of the warp yarns.
2.8 Woven Pile Fabrics : 3-dimensional fabrics, utilizing 3 sets of yarns, warp & weft to form base fabric & extra set of warp or weft yarns to form pile or loop surface. Extra set of yarns forming the pile may be cut to produce an erect pile on the face of fabric – Cut Pile – velvet or left uncut to form loops on one or both sides of fabric- Uncut pile – terry.
Warp pile fabric – velvet, plushes, terry, velour.
Weft pile fabric – velveteen, corduroy
2.8 Triaxial Fabrics : Triaxail fabrics have 3 set of yarns, 2 warp & 1 filling. The warp yarns are placed diagonal to each other by special attachments, through which the filling yarn is interlaced. It is an ancient weave used in basket weaving. Stability against stretching in all direction even bias, strong resistance, resistance to shear forces & raveling. Lighter, longer life & less material required than biaxial fabrics. Three major weaves – basic triaxial weave, basic basket triaxial weave & biplane weave.
Uses – aerospace, industrial fabrics, sail cloth, balloon, truck covers, uniforms & outerwear.
2.9 Terry Fabric: A warp pile fabric in which loops are created, without positive assistance, by varying the relative positions of the fell and the reed. A high tension is applied to the ground warp and a very low tension to the pile warp.
2.10 Narrow Fabric: This is the type of any textile fabric made by interlacing fibres or yarns which does not exceed 45 cm ( in the U. K.) and does not exceed 30 cm ( in the U. S. A. and other counries). Narrow fabrics are characterised by the edges, which are the essential feature.