A major method of fabric construction is weaving. However, the process of interlacing warp yarn with the inserted weft yarn in a definite order to form a fabric suitable for use as a dress material or industrial purpose is called weaving. The machine used for this purpose is called Loom. In a woven fabric, the lengthwise yarns, which run from the back to the fron of the loom and form the basic structure of the fabric are called the warp or end. The crosswise yarns are the weft, also referred to as the weft or pick. The weft yarns undergo less strain in the weaving process.
In any type of weaving process, four operations are fundamental. They are performed in sequence and are constantly repeated, and must be synchronized so that the operations occur in their sequence and do not interfere with one another.
- Shedding : Raising specific warp yarns by means of the harness or heddle frame/shaft.
- Picking : Inserting weft yarns through the shed.
- Beating Up : Pushing weft yarns firmly in place by means of the REED
- Taking Up and Letting off : Winding the finished fabric on the cloth beam and releasing more of the warp from the warp beam.